Welcome, UPSC aspirants, to this comprehensive study material on the Struggle for Swaraj, a pivotal chapter in India's freedom movement. In this module, we will delve into the key events and aspects of this struggle, including the Dandi March, Civil Disobedience Movement (CDM), Round Table Conferences (RTC), Gandhi-Irwin Pact, and the role of Mahatma Gandhi and BR Ambedkar in addressing caste and untouchability. Let's embark on this enlightening journey through history!
I. Dandi March:
The Dandi March, also known as the Salt March, was a landmark event in the struggle for Swaraj. Here are the key points to remember:
1. Mahatma Gandhi led a group of followers on a 240-mile march from Sabarmati Ashram to the coastal village of Dandi in Gujarat.
Trick to Remember: Picture Gandhi as the march's guiding light, leading the way to liberation.
2. The march aimed to protest against the British monopoly on salt production and the unjust Salt Laws.
Trick to Remember: Visualize a mountain of salt symbolizing British control, and Gandhi's march as a wave crashing against it.
3. The Dandi March garnered widespread support and drew attention to the injustices of British rule, becoming a symbol of nonviolent resistance.
Trick to Remember: Think of the Dandi March as the spark that ignited a fire of dissent against British oppression.
II. Programme of CDM (1930-34) and British Response:
The Civil Disobedience Movement (CDM) was a major phase of the struggle for Swaraj. Let's explore the key details:
1. The CDM aimed to challenge British authority through nonviolent means, including boycotts, strikes, and nonpayment of taxes.
Trick to Remember: Visualize the acronym "CDM" as the peaceful weapon wielded by Indians against British rule.
2. The British responded with repression, imposing harsh measures such as arrests, violence, and the suspension of civil liberties.
Trick to Remember: Remember the British response as the storm that tested the resilience of Indian protestors.
III. First Round Table Conference:
The First Round Table Conference was an important step towards resolving India's political issues. Here's what you need to know:
1. The conference, held in London in 1930, aimed to discuss and find solutions to India's constitutional reforms.
Trick to Remember: Picture the Round Table Conference as a gathering of minds, seeking to shape India's destiny.
2. The Indian National Congress, along with other political parties, demanded complete independence or Purna Swaraj.
Trick to Remember: Visualize the demand for Purna Swaraj as a flag representing the aspirations of the Indian people.
IV. Gandhi-Irwin Pact and Second RTC:
The Gandhi-Irwin Pact and the Second Round Table Conference played significant roles in the struggle for Swaraj. Let's uncover the details:
1. The Gandhi-Irwin Pact, signed in 1931, marked a truce between Mahatma Gandhi and the British government, leading to the release of political prisoners.
Trick to Remember: Think of the Gandhi-Irwin Pact as a bridge built between opposing forces, opening doors to dialogue.
2. The Second Round Table Conference, held in 1931, aimed to address issues of representation and safeguard minority rights.
Trick to Remember: Visualize the Second RTC as a forum where diverse voices blended together to shape India's future.
V. Second Phase of CDM:
The second phase of the Civil Disobedience Movement witnessed new strategies and challenges. Let's explore:
1. Mahatma Gandhi launched the Individual Satyagraha, emphasizing individual resistance to unjust laws.
Trick to Remember: Picture individuals standing tall like soldiers, armed with the weapon of truth.
2. The British government responded with repression and the imprisonment of nationalist leaders.
Trick to Remember: Remember the British response as a storm testing the steadfastness of individual satyagrahis.
VI. Women Participation after the Coming of Mahatma Gandhi:
The participation of women in the struggle for Swaraj was vital and increased under Mahatma Gandhi's leadership. Here's what you need to know:
1. Gandhi actively encouraged women's involvement in the freedom movement and recognized their pivotal role.
Trick to Remember: Visualize Gandhi as a bridge, welcoming women to step onto the path of liberation.
2. Women participated in various protests, picketing of liquor shops, and actively joined the Salt Satyagraha.
Trick to Remember: Think of women as the guiding stars, illuminating the path towards Swaraj.
VII. Communal Award, Poona Pact, and Mahatma Gandhi's Fast Unto Death:
The Communal Award, Poona Pact, and Mahatma Gandhi's fast unto death were significant milestones in addressing communal representation. Here's what you need to know:
1. The Communal Award, proposed by the British in 1932, aimed to provide separate electorates for religious minorities.
Trick to Remember: Visualize the Communal Award as a seed that sowed the seeds of division within the nationalist movement.
2. The Poona Pact, a compromise reached between Mahatma Gandhi and BR Ambedkar, ensured reserved seats for depressed classes.
Trick to Remember: Think of the Poona Pact as a bridge uniting diverse communities and promoting social justice.
3. Mahatma Gandhi's fast unto death, undertaken in 1932, pressured the government to address the concerns of marginalized communities.
Trick to Remember: Remember Gandhi's fast as a beacon of hope, compelling society to confront the inequalities within.
VIII. Mahatma Gandhi and BR Ambedkar's Approach to Caste and Untouchability:
Mahatma Gandhi and BR Ambedkar had differing approaches to address the caste system and untouchability. Here's what you need to know:
1. Mahatma Gandhi believed in eradicating untouchability through education and moral persuasion.
Trick to Remember: Picture Gandhi as the moral crusader, wielding education as his weapon against untouchability.
2. BR Ambedkar advocated for the rights and political representation of Dalits, emphasizing the need for legal and social reforms.
Trick to Remember: Visualize Ambedkar as the architect of change, constructing a framework of rights for marginalized communities.
IX. Third Round Table Conference:
The Third Round Table Conference was another important attempt to find common ground. Here's what you need to know:
1. The conference, held in 1932-33, aimed to resolve differences on constitutional reforms and minority rights.
Trick to Remember: Picture the Third RTC as the final gathering, striving to bridge the gap between diverse perspectives.
With these concise yet informative points and easy tricks to remember, you can now confidently navigate the Struggle for Swaraj. Best of luck in your preparations for the UPSC Exam, and may your knowledge of history soar to new heights!