Welcome, UPSC aspirants, to this comprehensive study material on the Struggle for Swaraj. In this module, we will delve into the various aspects of the Indian freedom struggle, focusing on key topics such as peasant, tribal, and workers' agitation, revolutionary terrorism, important events like the Boycott of the Simon Commission, Nehru Report, and the significance of the Poorna Swaraj Resolution. We will also explore the involvement of women, the Communal Award, and the approaches of Mahatma Gandhi and BR Ambedkar towards caste and untouchability. So, let's embark on this enlightening journey of India's struggle for independence!
1. Peasant, Tribal, and Workers' Agitation:
This topic highlights the agitations and movements by peasants, tribal communities, and workers during the freedom struggle. Here are the key points to remember:
Trick to Remember: Visualize a united front of peasants, tribals, and workers, fighting for their rights and freedom.
- Peasants, burdened by high land rents and oppressive agricultural practices, organized movements like the Champaran Satyagraha and the Bardoli Satyagraha.
- Tribal communities, facing exploitation and dispossession of their lands, participated in movements like the Santal Rebellion and the Munda Ulgulan.
- Workers, subjected to harsh working conditions, formed trade unions and carried out strikes, demanding better wages and labor rights.
2. Socialist Turn to Revolutionary Terrorism:
This topic explores the transition from socialist ideologies to revolutionary terrorism as a means of resistance. Here are the key points to remember:
Trick to Remember: Imagine the ideological shift as a twist in the struggle, leading to revolutionary actions.
- Influenced by socialist ideas, revolutionaries like Bhagat Singh, Chandrashekhar Azad, and Surya Sen embraced radical means to challenge British rule.
- They carried out daring acts like bombings, assassinations, and armed uprisings to awaken the masses and strike fear in the colonial administration.
3. Response of British to Revolutionary Terrorism:
This topic focuses on the British response to revolutionary terrorism during the freedom struggle. Here are the key points to remember:
Trick to Remember: Visualize the British response as a defensive shield against revolutionary activities.
- The British government enacted repressive laws like the Rowlatt Act, which curtailed civil liberties and facilitated arrests and detentions.
- They strengthened intelligence networks, increased surveillance, and used force to suppress revolutionary activities.
4. Boycott of Simon Commission:
This topic delves into the significant event of the Boycott of the Simon Commission. Here are the key points to remember:
Trick to Remember: Picture a commission being pushed away, symbolizing the act of boycotting.
- The Simon Commission was appointed to discuss constitutional reforms in India, but it lacked Indian representation, leading to widespread protests.
- Indians, under the leadership of leaders like Lala Lajpat Rai, boycotted the Commission and demanded full Indian participation in the decision-making process.
- The boycott marked a turning point in India's struggle for self-rule and showcased the unity and determination of the Indian people.
5. Nehru Report:
This topic explores the Nehru Report, a significant document in the quest for Indian autonomy. Here are the key points to remember:
Trick to Remember: Associate the Nehru Report with a step towards self-governance.
- The Nehru Report, drafted by a committee led by Motilal Nehru, proposed a framework for a future Indian constitution.
- It advocated for dominion status, safeguards for minorities, and fundamental rights for the Indian people.
- Though it faced criticism and amendments, the Nehru Report served as a blueprint for future discussions on Indian constitutional reforms.
6. Significance of Poorna Swaraj Resolution:
This topic focuses on the Poorna Swaraj Resolution, which holds great significance in the freedom struggle. Here are the key points to remember:
Trick to Remember: Visualize the Poorna Swaraj Resolution as the call for complete independence.
- The Poorna Swaraj Resolution was adopted by the Indian National Congress at its Lahore session in 1929.
- It demanded complete independence, marking a shift from the earlier demand for self-governance within the British Empire.
- The resolution galvanized the masses, leading to nationwide celebrations of January 26th as Independence Day.
With these informative points and memory tricks, you can navigate the complexities of the Struggle for Swaraj. Stay tuned for the continuation of this comprehensive study material, where we will cover the remaining topics and delve deeper into the significant events and ideologies that shaped India's march towards freedom. Best of luck with your UPSC Exam preparation, and may your knowledge of India's struggle for independence shine bright!